Saturday, May 23, 2020

General Theory Of Employment, Interest And Money - 2303 Words

Managerial Economics Table of Contents Introduction 2 Objectives 2 Analysis 3 Economic Analysis of India 3 Key challenges and recommendations 4 Long-run economic growth and impact of macroeconomic stabilization policy 5 Macroeconomic concepts related to international trade 5 Illustration 6 Conclusion 9 References 9 Introduction Broadly speaking, the modern economic science has two major components: microeconomics and macroeconomic. Compared to microeconomics, macroeconomics is a wider branch of economics. In 1936, macroeconomics emerged as a separate division of economics with the publication of John Maynard Keynes’ revolutionary book â€Å"The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money†. In the study of microeconomics, it is examined how individual units, whether they be households or firms, come to a decision on how to allocate resources and whether those decisions are appropriate. On the other hand, in macroeconomics, the economy is studied as a whole. Macroeconomics studies the aggregate outcomes of all the decisions that households, firms, and the government make in an economy. Accordingly, the study of the behaviour of and structural changes in, aggregate or national production, aggregate consumption, aggregate savings, aggregate investment, general price level, total exports and i mports and a country’s balance of payment position can be considered as the subject matters of macroeconomics. For the purpose of macroeconomic studies, allShow MoreRelatedThe General Theory Of Employment, Interest, And Money1332 Words   |  6 PagesIn the renowned work, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money John Maynard Keynes breaks down his general theory of mercantilism and free trade into seven different section. Each section talking about his opposition to economic theorists and his views on the advantage of having an adaptable and well prepared system to maintain an efficient economy. In his first argument he starts off by explaining how  Ã¢â‚¬Å"for the past one hundred years there has been a remarkable divergence of opinion†Read MoreThe General Theory Of Employment, Interest, And Money.1653 Words   |  7 PagesThe General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money Background information about the Author John Maynard Keynes was born in Cambridge, England in 1883 (Bateman, Toshiaki, Maria, 2010). He was the first born in a family of three children. He spent most of his toddler years in Cambridge where he attended kindergarten. In 1889, he attended his first kindergarten lessons at Perse School for Girls where he was supposed to attend lessons for five days a week. At the initial stage of education, he showedRead MoreKeynes Macroeconomic Theory Essay1181 Words   |  5 Pagesyears of the industrialization era modern economics began to see a change and shift of ideas. These ideas were brought to the front by John Maynard Keynes, who in 1936 transformed much of the modern economics by a single book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. Keynes also wrote other titles as well as ‘A Tract on Monetary Reform (1923) which was an attempt to secure a monetary policy instead of the gold standard. Keynes (2002) believed that the stable economy of Britain was moreRead MoreNeoclassical Theory Of Keynesian Theory1578 Words   |  7 Pagesboth the Neoclassical school of economic thought and Keynes’ General Theory. The UK Cambridge Post Keynesian view of economics also contains elements from both these schools, yet the Neoclassical Keynesian synthesis and the UK Cambridge Keynesian bodies of economic thought differ in their views, methods and ideas. The two schools utilise different models to reach the similar conclusion that the economy will tend towards full employment equilibrium in a long run situation – a conclusion that complementsRead MoreHow the Economy Works712 Words   |  3 PagesKeynesianism on the demand for money have always been subject to debate by economic scholars alike. The Quantity Theory of Money is an economic theory that states that the money supply is an economy is directly proportional to the general price level. This theory is commonly ass ociated with neoclassical economics. Milton Friedman, a famous economist, modified this quantity theory of money by formulating a theory called the general theory of asset demand, where money demand is a function of wealthRead MoreJohn Maynard Keynes s Economic Theory And Policy After World War II1307 Words   |  6 Pagesfull employment. John Maynard Keynes came up with a theory as a counterargument: that aggregate demand is the single most powerful force in any economy. Keynes explains that free markets are not able to balance themselves out enough to lead to the full employment everyone was waiting for. The 1930s gave rise to Keynes’ ideas, especially after the publication of his revolutionary book The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money in 1936. â€Å"Keynesian economics dominated economic theory andRead MoreClassical School Of Thought And The Great Depression1020 Words   |  5 Pagesstated, a theory becomes irrelevant when it cannot explain current iss ues within the economy; therefore the classical school of thought was not valid anymore in Keynes view. John Maynard Keynes is the author of The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. Furthermore, The General Theory is the result of the Great Depression, where the unemployment rate was high and businesses were not prosperous (Krugman, 2007). Keynes wrote The General Theory to challenge classical economic theories. This essayRead MoreJohn Maynard Keynes : The Father Of Macroeconomics1502 Words   |  7 Pageseconomist, whose impact on economic theories has proven substantial contribution to reconstructing of economical values. He had influential individuals who helped intrigue and develop his interests in economic. Keynes interests were beyond economics; he took active stance on proposing post-war monetary funds, important for Germany’s reparation and reconstruction funds after World War II. Through his different opportunities and bureaucracy, Keynes developed theo ries, for which he believed is vital toRead MoreThe Keynesian Era During The Middle Of The Nineteenth Century1720 Words   |  7 Pagesnineteenth century, economists Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Mathus, and John Stuart Mill all shared somewhat similar economic views of the world. Some of the main concepts covered during this time included the division of labor, theories of rent, value, and distribution, theories of market â€Å"gluts† and population, and opportunity cost, competition, and trade. These classical economists believed capitalism was the foundation for an efficient economy where little to no government intervention was recognizedRead MoreJohn Maynard Keynes Transformed Economics In The 20Th Century1507 Words   |  7 Pagesthe postulates that underpinned their theories. Keynes disagreed with the laissez faire attitude of the classical thinkers, and argued for greater government intervention due to his belief that the focus should be on demand side macroecon omics rather than supply side. This belief transpired because of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the subsequent depression that highlighted the shortcomings of the traditional theories, especially in regards to employment that remained excessively high for a prolonged

Monday, May 11, 2020

Essay on “Political Science”

Essay on â€Å"Political Science† 1. The executive checks the power of the American legislature. Through the use of veto power, the president is able to prevent the legislature from misusing its powers. The constitution grants the president this power and the importance of this can clearly be demonstrated. One feature of the American politics is that there are only two political parties. These competing parties usually conflict in many issues and considering the fact that the individuals who win elections with no affiliation to any party are few, it means that it can be very difficult to pass bills in the parliament. In order to make it possible to pass the bill, parts that are not necessary to the bill may be included to ensure that the bill is passed. When the bill is passed, the president can then assent the bill while exercising the veto power to reject the parts of the bill that are not necessary. Therefore the veto power makes it possible to pass bills that would otherwise not be passed. The veto power is also important in making sure that the legislature does not pass bills that are meant just to benefit the members of the legislature. Some members of the legislature support bills just because they are likely to benefit if the bills pass. In this regard, the president may exercise the veto power if the bill is not in the interests of the public. In history, Abraham Lincoln used veto power on 4th July 1864 when he refused to sign a bill and hence the bill did not become a law. Lincoln then later explained why he refused to sign Wade Davis bill. This bill required that the southern states be controlled by provisional governors until when the war would end. Lincoln refused because he did not want commitments considering the fact that the congress was being adjourned. Generally, there are two administrative levels in the United States. Both of these control the citizens of the United States. The two levels are the national federal government and the state government. The federal government has the power to control the citizens of all the states through its officers and the federal laws. 2. In the case of McCullock v Maryland, justice marshal described the powers of the federal government as inherent, implied or enumerated. The inherent powers of the federal government are the ones that it is supposed to exercise so that it is able to survive. Enumerated powers are the ones that are stated in the constitution. Implied powers are the ones that the federal government must exercise to enable it perform the duties assigned to it. In the case, marshal stated that the federal government has the power to declare and conduct war, collect taxes and control trade. In this case, it was decided that the state government had no power to overburden the federal government by taxing it. The federal government has the power to collect taxes to enable it perform its duties. In the case of southern Dakota v Dole, it was decided that the states have the constitutional rights to regulate the drinking age of the people in the state. Therefore the state has no direct power to direct the drinking age of the people in the state. However, it was decided that according to the constitution, the federal government can indirectly influence the drinking age. This can be through controlling the allocation of finances to the state. On the other hand, it was decided that the federal government has the direct authority to control fire arms in a school. This is considering the fact that sale of fire arm involves commerce which is regulated by the federal government. This was demonstrated in the case U.S. v. Lopez (1995). In this case, it can be seen that the constitution allows the federal government to control commerce while the state government has some power of deciding the behavior of their residents. Question 3 The 14th amendment stated that all the people born in or naturalized in any American state will become citizens of that state and therefore will enjoy the rights of being a citizen of the United States. Therefore no state can pass a law that is to limit the rights of any such citizen. Such people will become the citizens of the states and also the citizens of the United States. The constitution further states that the clause will be implemented by the congress and not the state government. The intention of the clause was to ensure that the children of the slaves who had been bought from other parts of the world become citizens of the country. Also the African Americans in the country would become citizens of the United States. Dred Scott v. Sandford was a case that was affected by the 14th amendment. In the case, the court decided that the slaves who were from Africa and their children were not American citizens and therefore they had no rights as American citizens. In addition, these people were not protected by the American constitution. After the 14th amendment was passed, the above case ceased to operate as a precedent. This is because the children now would directly become citizens of the respective states and United States by their birth. In addition, the slaves who originated from different parts of the world became citizens of the country by naturalization. These people could now enjoy the constitutional rights of the country from when the 14th amendment was passed. Generally, the precedent above ceased to be applied after the 14th amendment was passed. In Barron v. Baltimore (1833), the government was to establish whether the federal case laws were to apply in the states. According to this case, it was decided that the freedoms provided for by the federal government are not to apply in the state government. When the 14th amendment was passed, the case law was not to apply. In this regard, the 14th amendment changed the fact that federal case laws could not apply in the federal states.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Bshs 402 Free Essays

string(111) " differences and similarities of case management in the community setting and in the managed care environment\." Course Syllabus BSHS/402 CASE MANAGEMENT Course Start Date: 10/30/2012 Course End Date: 12/3/2012 Please print a copy of this syllabus for handy reference. Whenever there is a question about what assignments are due, please remember this syllabus is considered the ruling document. Copyright Copyright  ©2009 by University of Phoenix. We will write a custom essay sample on Bshs 402 or any similar topic only for you Order Now All rights reserved. University of Phoenix © is a registered trademark of Apollo Group, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft ©, Windows ©, and Windows NT © are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other company and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. Use of these marks is not intended to imply endorsement, sponsorship, or affiliation. Edited in accordance with University of Phoenix © editorial standards and practices. Course Description This course covers principles, practices, and issues in case management. The diagnosis and treatment of developmental, psychological, and psychiatric roblems and treatment resources in the lease restrictive and most cost effective settings will be examined. Course Topics amp; Objectives Week One: Case Management Overview, Clientele, and Practice Models  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Understand the basic definition and application of the case management function and process.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Delineate the concepts of case man agement as they apply to the needs of various special populations.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Describe the components of an integrated delivery model of case management. Week Two: Implementation of the Case Management Process   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Describe the role and practice framework of case management.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Identify the differences and similarities of case management in the community setting and in the managed care environment. You read "Bshs 402" in category "Papers" Week Three: Case Management Skills: Interpersonal and Information Gathering Skills, Goal Setting, Intervention, and Evaluation  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Demonstrate the interpersonal skills necessary to build rapport in the early stages of case management.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Understand the integration of assessment to problem identification and goal setting.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Examine the connection between interven tion planning and resource utilization. Week Four: Case Management Skills: Counseling, Therapy, and Linking of Clients to Services    ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Examine the personal helping interventions that can have positive effects on behavioral patterns of vulnerable clients.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Understand the case manager’s role in developing formal and informal linkages to benefit the client. Week Five: Case Management Skills: Reassessment, Outcome Monitoring, Advocacy, and General Case Management Problems    ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Understand the correlation of reassessment, monitoring, and outcome evaluation to the prevention of future problems. Course Materials   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Rothman, J. , ;amp; Sager, J. S. (1998). Case management: Integrating individual and community practice (2nd ed. ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. All electronic materials are available on your student Web site. Point Values for Course Assignments  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ASSIGNMENTS| Points| Individual (75%)|   | All WeeksParticipation and Discussion Questions| 200| Week Two Individual Assignment: Special Populations Paper| 150| Week Three Individual Assignment: Textbook Quiz| 200| Week FiveIndividual Assignment: Final Examination| 200| Learning Team (25%)|   | Week TwoLearning Team Charter| 25| Week ThreeCase Manager Interview Questions| 25| Week FourLearning Team Assignment: Informal Networks Paper| 100| Week FiveLearning Team Assignment: Case Manager Interviews Presentation| 100| Total| 100| Week  One Case Management Overview, Clientele, and Practice Models   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Understand the basic definition and application of the case management function and process.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Delineate the concepts of case management as they apply to the needs of various special populations.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Describe the components of an integrated delivery model of case management. Course Assignments 1. Readings  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Read the Appendix and Ch. 1, 2, ;amp; 10 of C ase Management.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Read this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. 2. Learning Team Instructions  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Review the Week One objectives and discuss insights and questions you may have.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Prepare for the Case Manager Interviews Power Point Presentation. ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Create a plan for how the case manager interviews will be selected and conducted and adding any new ideas. ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Discuss the areas that each of you wishes to pursue, who to contact, and how to contact likely interviewees. ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Start your search NOW to find a case manager to interview for your LT project. Each student is required to interview a case manager. You cannot interview someone where you work and you cannot interview you own case manager if you have one. Your case managers must have either a BA or MA degree. ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Start thinking about questions you will ask your case manager. Working with your team members, start discussing possible questions you will ask the case managers during the interview.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Information obtained from these interviews will combined and synthesized into a Power Point presentation in Week Five about how case managers function in the real world.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Search online for articles on case management for special needs populations. Each person can choose their own population to write on for the Week Two Special Population paper; this is an exercise to help each team learn about various special populations. ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Divide the various disability populations and conduct an online search for articles on each student’s specific population. ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Review the articles found and focus on the similarities and differences in services to the various populations.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Conduct a group discussion in which you review the similarities and differences in case management practices between special needs populations. 3. Discussion Questions  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is a difference in goals that are set by the client, and goals that a provider may wish for the client to achieve. Compare client-driven goals and provider-given goals.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As we’ve learned from this week’s reading, there are many different forms of advocacy. Discuss the role of advocacy in case management. What are some examples of ways we as case managers can appropriately advocate for our clients? Weekly Reminders Discussion Questions Discussion question responses will not  count towards the class participation requirement. Only Posts to the Main forum will count towards participation. All Week: Remember to participate in the class discussions 4 out of 7 days during the week. Summary of Week 1 Deliverables Assignment| Individual or Learning Team| Location| Due|   Participation| Individual| Main| Ongoing –  4 days per week| Bio| Individual| Chat Room| Tuesday| Check-In| Individual| Main| Wednesday| Discussion Question (DQ) #1| Individual| Main| Wednesday| DQ #2| Individual| Main| Friday| Check-In to the Learning Team | Learning Team| Learning Team| Monday| Week  Two Implementation of the Case Management Process  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Describe the role and practice framework of case management.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Identify the differences and similarities of case management in the community setting and in the managed care environment. Course Assignments 1. Readings  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Read Ch. 3 ;amp; 4 of Case Management.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Read this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. 2. Learning Team Instructions  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Prepare for the Textbook Quiz in Week Three by reviewing Ch. –4 of Case Management as a group. Create and Submit the Learning Team Charter to the Learning Team Forum. There is a Learning Team Charter located in the Materials Forum that should be used for this exercise.  ·      Ã‚   Diversity Issues Exercise   o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã ‚  Ã‚   Form dyads or triads and discuss with your teammate(s) your differences in sex, race, culture, politics, and religion. After you have completed your discussion, talk to each  other about what you found hard to discuss, what you found easy, and whether or not what you experienced relates to your work with clients. Discuss your experiences with the rest of the Learning Team. 3. Individual Assignment: Special Populations Paper  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Resource: University of Phoenix Material: Criteria for Preparing Individual Paper on Special Populations (It will say that it is due Week Four, but it is due Week Two)  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Review the material gathered on your chosen special population for the Week One Learning Team discussion. The materials should include at least two scholarly sources.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Write a 3- to 5-page paper in which you explain the following:    ? What populations have you reviewed and which one have you selected? ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   How and why have you selected this population? How was this area of interest formed? ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What do you bring to the field of helping that would benefit this specific population? ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   How would you use case management to help this population? ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What limitations and strengths do you bring to this chosen field? H ow would you use the strengths and overcome the limitations?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Are there likely to be multicultural issues to be addressed as you work with this population? How would you address those? ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What local resources did you find in your Internet search for this population? Format your paper according to APA standard. This is a scholarly paper, requiring at least two scholarly sources, and citations of all information that is not common knowledge. Additionally, it should NOT be written in first person. Be creative! 4. Discussion Questions Discuss the importance of boundaries for both the client and practitioner in case management. Describe the role played by managed care in case management. Weekly Reminders Discussion Questions Discussion question responses will not count towards the class participation requirement. Only Posts to the Main forum will count towards participation. Participation All Week: Remember to participate in the class discussions 4 out of 7 days during the week. Summary of Week 2 Deliverables Assignment| Individual or Learning Team| Location| Due|   Participation| Individual| Main| Ongoing – 4 days per week| LT Charter| Learning Team| Assignments link| Tuesday| DQ #3| Individual| Main| Wednesday| DQ #4 | Individual| Main| Friday| Special Populations Paper| Individual| Assignments Link| Sunday| Week  Three Case Management Skills: Interpersonal and Information Gathering Skills, Goal Setting, Intervention, and Evaluation * Demonstrate the interpersonal skills necessary to build rapport in the early stages of case management. * Understand the integration of assessment to problem identification and goal setting. * Examine the connection between intervention planning and resource utilization. Course Assignments . Readings  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Read Ch. 5 ;amp; 6 of Case Management.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Read this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. 5. Individual Assignment: Textbook Quiz –  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Quiz will be posted prior to Day 1 of Week Three.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Complete the quiz on Ch. 1–4 of Case Management. 6. Learning Team Instructions  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Discuss progress being made toward locating appropriate interviewees for the case management interviews, including any difficulties anyone is facing or experiencing, and solve problems as a team to overcome the difficulties.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Working as a team, prepare 12 interview questions (2 questions for each principle) in which the following are demonstrated: ? Assessment and reassessment ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Establishing a relationship ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fostering client participation and empowerment ? Monitoring ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Advocacy ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Evaluation (system used to prevent problems in the future) These twelve questions are the core that each team member will be asking the case managers and presenting in full for the Case Managers Interview PPT. They should be submitted in the assignment link by the due date indicated. 7. Discussion Questions Using a case study provided by your instructor as an example, address one of the following two questions:    ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   List the components of an intake interview. In other words, what do you need to find out?  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   List the components of assessment. Describe how you would assess the seriousness of each problem and the steps you might take to address them. Using a case study provided by your instructor as an example, address one of the following two questions:  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Describe the process of setting goals.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Describe formal and informal support systems and how you might use them for your case study. Weekly Reminders Discussion Questions Discussion question responses will not  count towards the class participation requirement. Only Posts to the Main forum will count towards participation. Participation All Week: Remember to participate in the class discussions 4 out of 7 days during the week. Summary of Week 3 Deliverables Assignment| Individual or Learning Team| Location| Due|   Participation| Individual| Main| Ongoing – 4 days per week| DQ #5| Individual| Main| Wednesday| DQ #6| Individual| Main| Friday| Textbook Quiz| Individual| Assignments Link| Sunday| Case Manager Interview Questions| Learning Team| Assignments Link| Monday| Week  Four Case Management Skills: Counseling, Therapy, and Linking of Clients to Services * Examine the personal helping interventions that can have positive effects on behavioral patterns of vulnerable clients. * Understand the case manager’s role in developing formal and informal linkages to benefit the client. Course Assignments 8. Readings  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Read Ch. 7 amp; 9 of Case Management.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Read this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. 9. Learning Team Instructions   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Review textbook material as a group from Weeks One through Four in preparation for the Final Examination in Week Five.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Continue preparing for the completion of the Case Manager Interviews Power Point Presentation due in Week Five. 10. Learning Team Assignment: Informal Networks paper ?  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Write a 4- to 5-page paper using the following criteria:    Research:   As a team, find two peer reviewed articles or other scholarly sources (not including the textbook) in the UOP Library related to informal support networks. Every member of the team needs to read the articles.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Use information from the articles, your personal experiences if you so choose (1-2 paragraphs only of personal experiences in the paper – not 1-2 paragraphs of personal experiences for each member of the Learning Team), and ideas from the group discussion about the special population in your article. Be sure to read and follow the rubric posted in your Materials forum. ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Be sure to give a description of the special population served in the article. Include information on the race, age, economic status, culture, and family structure of the special population.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Submit your Informal Social Network assignment through the Assignment Link. * 11. Discussion Questions  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Explain the difference between counseling and therapy. What do case managers do? *  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Explain the differences between empowering and enabling clients and give examples of each. * Weekly Reminders Discussion Questions Discussion question responses will not count towards the class participation requirement. Only Posts to the Main forum will count towards participation. Participation All Week: Remember to participate in the class discussions 4 out of 7 days during the week. Summary of Week 4 Deliverables Assignment| Individual or Learning Team| Location| Due| Participation| Individual| Main| Ongoing – 4 days per week| DQ #7| Individual| Main| Wednesday| DQ #8| Individual| Main| Friday| Informal Networks Paper| Learning Team| Assignments Link| Monday| Week  Five Case Management Skills: Reassessment, Outcome Monitoring, and Advocacy, and General Case Management Problems   * Understand the correlation of reassessment, monitoring, and outcome evaluation to the prevention of future problems. Course Assignments 13. Readings  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Read Ch. 8 of Case Management.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Review Ch. 1–9 of Case Management.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Read this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. 14. Individual Assignment: Final Examination  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Complete the Final Examination. 15. Learning Team Assignment: Case Manager Interviews – Power Point Presentation    ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   Submit the information compiled by the team’s research and interviews on case managers in a Power Point Slide Presentation through the Assignment Link. There are NO maximum or minimum number of slides required. A word doc (. doc or docx) copy of all speaker’s notes is REQUIRED and should be entered into the assignment link separately. Failure to do so will result in a loss of points. 16. Discussion Questions  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In case management, the term â€Å"monitoring† has a specific meaning. Describe its definition and purpose within this context. Be sure to include the role of client involvement in your discussion. *  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   During monitoring and reassessment, clients may encounter various barriers. Describe one such barrier and what you as the case manager might do to help your client overcome it. Weekly Reminders Final Week Requirements Discussion question responses and participation  will be required during the final week of the course. Discussion question responses will not count towards the class participation requirement Only Posts to the Main forum will count towards participation. Participation All Week: Remember to participate in the class discussions 4 out of 7 days during the week. Summary of Week 5 Deliverables Assignment| Individual or Learning Team| Location| Due| Participation| Individual| Main| Ongoing – 4 days per week| DQ #9| Individual| Main| Wednesday| DQ #10| Individual| Main| Friday| Final Exam| Individual| Assignments Link| Sunday| Learning Team Evaluations| Individual| Individual| Monday| Case Manager Interviews – Power Point Presentation| Learning Team| Assignments Link| Monday| How to cite Bshs 402, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

The Name of the Rose Monks and the Church Essay Example For Students

The Name of the Rose Monks and the Church Essay In the movie The Name of the Rose?, monks who run the Abbey recognize that knowledge can be a very dangerous thing to possess. They say that the truth is different from what the ruling authority says is the truth. Then such knowledge can become part of a revolution in thinking that destroys everything that they stood for. A conflict between two different ideologies is at the forefront of this movie. It is the conflict between knowledge, truth, and the ideologies found in an ancient book written by Aristotle. In the film, Brother William (played by Sean Connery), a monk who has come to investigate deaths at the Abbey, believes that such books are seen as dangerous by the Church, because they contain different thoughts and ideas that are a completely different from what the church is thinking. The Church recognizes how much power a book could have because Christianity, a religion that was the based on the Bible, defined Europe in the Middle Ages. It was thanks to the Church that the practice of reading and writing survived in Europe. We will write a custom essay on The Name of the Rose Monks and the Church specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now From the beginning, the monkhood made apparent the importance collecting transcribing and studying all of the books they had, they are also trying to combine the Greek and Latin traditions to the teachings of Christianity. This is why in The Name of the Rose,? the scriptorium, the building where the books are hand copied, has such as an important place in the monastery, they work day in and day out copying the old books. When William finds the building he is happy because of all the books that are stored there, We are in one of the greatest libraries in all of the Christian Kingdom. One of the most important goals of the monastery was to keep the knowledge of the past. However, at the same time, they become dangerous if the books ideas are completely different from the churches. A blind monk who has murdered people in the Abbey, tries everything to keep secret Aristotles book on comedy, believing that the truth is to be found in the Bible and in what the Church says is the truth. The Name of the Rose? demonstrates how important the discovery of Aristotles book was to Christianity in Europe in the early Centuries. Before Aristotles writings were found, the Bible was recognized in Europe as the only important book that is true and any other publication that differs is wrong. With the finding of Aristotles writing, it was recognized that another important source of truth and knowledge had been found. The Church did not see this as dangerous as long as the writings were the same as the churchs beliefs: Aristotles understanding of a king or sex agreed with the Christian values of good will and faith. Aristotles main idea could be used to explain a God-driven universe. Saint Thomas Aquinas teachings and ideas were also used by Aristotle and produced the same truths as the Christianity, although the truth of Christianity is the end all and be all of reasoning, still the truth that human reason is naturally supplied to know cannot be rival the reasoning of the Christianity. However, what the Church thought was dangerous, was if Aristotles writings did not support the views and the beliefs made by the Church and could threaten the Churchs power over the people. This is what is at the center of The Name of the Rose,? when the leaders of the monastery believe that Aristotles book on comedy is dangerous to the Christian society. The monk said: Laughter kills fear and without fear there can be no faith. Without fear of the Satan, there is no more need of God. Laughter will remain common mans recreation. The world would relapse into chaos. He believes that such a book must be kept secret because it could destroy everything the Church had worked so hard to build. He was willing to murder just so the book could be kept a secret. .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a , .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a .postImageUrl , .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a , .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a:hover , .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a:visited , .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a:active { border:0!important; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a:active , .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud257c0b44adc13b7b24378d7efed337a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The woman in white - plot and characters EssayBrother William, a man who believes in the power of human reason, instead of fearing the power of Satan, and that no knowledge and no book should be forbidden. When William and his apprentice first arrive at the Abbey, the conflicts between traditional Church beliefs, the age of faith, and the new beliefs of the developmental age of reason, as represented by William become clear. William represents a change in thinking that accepts reasoning as well as faith; this is the main conflict of the film involving the monks who believe such a change in thinking will destroy the Christian society. The church force the peasants to contribute money in order to save their souls, and when they throw out the garbage and the starving peasants eat it. Conflict between the religious orders who believed that the Church should be like Christ and give up all possessions to the poor, and a Church that had grown rich and politically powerful, One of the ways in which the Church showed how much power they had by the drive through of the Inquisition this marks the culmination of a period of change in the Church. Some of the ways the Church exercised its power, has been through the Inquisition, and it told all those whose beliefs were different from the Church, that they would be executed. In The Name of the Rose, the monks who believed that the Church should give up the wealth it accrued and give it back to those, whom they stole it from. The Inquisitor orders them to be tortured and executed for being heretics and for working with the Satan against the Church. The growing conflict between the age of faith and the age of reason to the conflict between a Church that was growing rich and powerful and some of the religious orders that wanted the Church to return to its beginnings, by helping the poor. The Name of the Rose? shows how conflict and religion and social change was taking place in the High Middle Ages, and how much corruption and power can enter anyones life and get a stronghold of the person and almost never let go.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Culture Shock Example

Culture Shock Example Culture Shock – Coursework Example Culture Shock 10 November, Culture shock occurs when a different country’s culture runs against the American culture (Knell, 2012). Shock occurs when different cultures collide. The Filipino culture differs from our United States culture. Understanding and accepting other cultures is good for everyone.Example of Culture Shock. I was culture shocked when I conversed with a Filipino acquaintance. There are many Filipinos who have immigrated to our United States. The Filipino acquaintance impressed on me how they treat their elders. Filipino children take care of their parents (Hargraves, 2009). How my personal assumptions were challenged. My prior personal assumptions about how the other nationalities live were fruitfully challenged. I initially thought that other cultures should be replaced by American culture. After talking to the Filipino acquaintance, my personal assumptions of how people should treat their elderly changed. The Filipino family takes care of their elderly fol ks. They do not bring their elderly to the home for the aged (Halkias, 2011). What I learned about my own beliefs. I have learned to respect and accept the Filipino culture. I learned that the American culture on how to take care of the elderly is not the only preferred model (Bryan, 2010). Now, I understand why they hold on to their culture of taking care of their elderly folks (Samovar, 2009). Summarizing, culture shock occurs between people of different nations. Different countries uphold different cultures. The Filipino elderly culture show close family relationships. Overwhelmingly, comprehending and accepting other cultures beneficial shocked me to have an open mind.References:Bryan, N. (2010). Filipino Americans. New York: ABDO Press.Halkias, D. (2011). Father-daughter Succession in Family Business. New York: Gower Press.Hargraves, O. (2009). Culture shock! A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette. New York: Marshall Cavendish Press.Knell, M. (2012). Survivin the Culture Sh ock. New York: Intervarsity Press.Samovar, L. (2009). Communication Between Cultures. New York: Cengage Learning Press.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

The Meaning of Witchs Cake in the Salem Witch Trials

The Meaning of Witch's Cake in the Salem Witch Trials It was believed that a witchs cake had the power to reveal whether witchcraft was afflicting a person with symptoms of illness.  Such a cake or biscuit was made with rye flour and the urine of the afflicted person.  The cake was then fed to a dog. If the dog exhibited the same symptoms, the presence of witchcraft was proven.  Why a dog?  A dog was believed to be a common familiar associated with the devil.  The dog was then supposed to point to the witches who had afflicted the victim. In Salem Village, in the Massachusetts colony, in 1692, such a witchs cake was key in the first accusations of witchcraft that led to court trials and executions of many who were accused.  The practice was apparently a well known folk practice in English culture of the time. What Happened? In Salem Village, Massachusetts,  in January of 1692 (by the modern calendar), several girls began behaving erratically.  One of these girls was Elizabeth Parris, known as Betty, who was nine years old at the time.  She was the daughter of the Rev. Samuel Parris, the minister of the Salem Village Church. Another was Abigail Williams, who was 12 years old and an orphaned niece of Rev. Samuel Parris, who lived with the Parris family.  They complained of fever and convulsions. The father tried prayer, on the model of Cotton Mather who had written about curing similar symptoms in another case. He also had the congregation and some other local clergy pray for the girls to cure their affliction.  When prayer did not cure the illness, Rev. Parris brought in another minister, John Hale,  and the local physician, William Griggs, who observed the symptoms in the girls, and could find no physical reason. They suggested that witchcraft was involved. Whose Idea and Who Made the Cake? A neighbor of the Parris family, Mary Sibley, recommended the making of witchs cake to reveal whether witchcraft was involved.  She gave directions to John Indian, a slave serving the Parris family, to make the cake.  He collected urine from the girls and then had  Tituba, another slave in the household, actually bake the witchs cake and feed it to the dog that lived in the Parris household. (Both Tituba and John Indian were slaves, most likely of Indian origin, brought to Massachusetts Bay Colony by Rev. Parris from Barbados.) Even though the diagnosis didnt work, Rev. Parris denounced in church the use of this magic. He said it didnt matter if it was done with good intentions,  calling it going to the devil for help against the devil.  Mary Sibley, according to church records, was suspended from communion, then restored when she stood and confessed before the congregation and the people of the congregation raised their hands to show they were satisfied with her confession. Mary Sibley then disappears from the records about the trials, though Tituba and the girls figure prominently. The girls ended up naming those they accused of witchcraft.  The first accused were Tituba, Sarah Good, and Sarah Osbourne.  Sarah Good later died in prison and Sarah Good was executed in July.  Tituba confessed to witchcraft, so she was exempted from execution, and she later turned accuser. By the end of the trials early the following year, four accused witches had died in prison, one had been pressed to death, and nineteen were hanged. What Really Afflicted the Girls? Scholars generally agree that the accusations were rooted in a community hysteria, primed by belief in the supernatural.  Politics within the church likely played a part, with Rev. Parris at the center of controversy over power and compensation.  Politics in the colony - at a shaky time, including resolving the colonys status with the King and wars with the French and Indians, likely also played a part.  Some point to controversy over inheritance, especially targeting those who interfered with inheritances.  There were also some old squabbles among community members. All these are credited by some or many historians as playing a part in the unfolding of the accusations and trials.  A few historians have also argued that grain that had been contaminated with a fungus called ergot may have caused some of the symptoms.

Monday, February 17, 2020

ROLE OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN MANAGEMENT Essay

ROLE OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN MANAGEMENT - Essay Example Managerial communication is a form of communication that takes place in any workplace setting, either between managers and employees or between delegations of different companies. Effective managerial communication helps a company in the achievement of goals and objectives. Some of the main benefits of effective managerial communication include timely communication between departments, improved and more efficient business processes, improved decision making, improved level of understanding between managers and employees, and improved working relationships. In this paper, we will discuss the role of effective communication in management. The paper will also include a discussion on the barriers in effective communication and the ways to overcome those barriers. Principles of Effective Business Communication There are some key principles of effective communication that make the process of business communication successful and result-oriented. Those principles include starting the commun ication process in a friendly manner, showing interest in each other, giving sincere appreciation to the other parties involved in communication, overcoming barriers to communication, giving value to the viewpoints of each other, using appropriate body language, and giving instant feedback. The process of communication should take place in a friendly environment. Moreover, there should be clarity in the messages and the tone of communication should be polite so that other people taking part in communication should understand the concerns of each other easily. Another important thing is that all participants should show interest in knowing the viewpoint of each other in order to create a respectful and peaceful environment for communication. The participants should show and give due respect to each other because successful business communications occur only when all parties show interest in each other and value the feedbacks and viewpoints of others. No one should show any kind of at titude or disgrace because it makes other people uncomfortable. Next, there should be no barriers to communication because barriers adversely affect the overall process of communication. Feedback is one of the most important principles of effective managerial or business communication is continuous feedback. Feedback makes the communication process meaningful and effective. All participants of the communication process should provide instant feedback to the viewpoints and concerns of others because it helps the participants gain more confidence and understanding of the issue. Best Practices for Effective Communication Along with the principles of effective communication in management, managers and employees also need to focus on some effective communication practices in order to make the communication process successful. Both managers and employees need to be able to communicate effectively with each other at the workplace because ineffective communication, bad attitude, and persona l and work related conflicts and misunderstandings can affect the communication process and can create many problems for employees, as well as for the company. Convenience, freedom of expression, and timely communication are those elements of communication that play a major role in effective workplace and managerial level communication (Means, 2010, p. 45). Convenience From managerial communication perspective, managers and emp